Grid Analysis and Grid Model Design

Grid Analysis and Grid Model Design

For the design, analysis and development of a Smart Grid Solution, initially the NETfficient high level grid model (see figure 1) was built.

This model includes all necessary elements for energy generation and storage, such as Hybrid Energy Storage Solution (HESS) and Photovoltaic Generators (PV), as well as all possibilities of components’ interactions and the use cases that were designed for pilot demonstration. On the one hand, these use case scenarios comprise high and medium voltage (HV/MV) scenarios and on the other hand low voltage (LV) scenarios. For meeting the challenge to store excess of generated energy during low demand for later use during high demand/peak hours; these studies scenarios will focus on the behaviour of batteries in case of charging/discharging and the effect on the grid.
Moreover, the high level model of grid design was built for analysing and avoiding risks associated with the integration of different technologies, resources, devices and systems and all possible interactions in-between them in one grid. Therefore, the next steps that were taken were the definition of the technology architecture and risk mitigation.

Figure 1: High level model of grid design

Definition of technology architecture and system integration

In order to avoid risks associated with the system integration and interactions technology architecture, the Smart Grid Plane (see figure 2) was designed.

The objective was to create an architecture that responds to one of the main restrictions – the monitoring to be performed must not affect the performance or operability of the DSO network in real time as well as DSO systems or the NETfficient project. This Smart Grid Plane enables the representation on which levels (hierarchical zones) of power system management interactions between domains take place. This is the basis for analysing system integration and interactions.

Further, the Smart Grid Plane was integrated into an SGAM (Smart Grid Architecture Model) framework, to get a more detailed insight of the processes and interactions.
The SGAM is intended to present the design of smart grid use cases in an architectural viewpoint and allows the validation of smart grid use cases and their support by standards. It considers the nature of the power system management which tries to integrate. In general, power system management distinguishes between electrical process and information management viewpoints. These viewpoints can be partitioned into the physical domains of the electrical energy conversion chain and the hierarchical zones (or levels) for the management of the electrical process.
Applying this concept to the smart grid conceptual model allows the foundation of the Smart Grid Plane. This smart grid plane enables the representation on which levels (hierarchical zones) of power system management interactions between domains take place.

The NETfficient SGAM framework (see figure 3) is established by merging the concept of the interoperability layers with the Smart Grid Plane.
It consists of the five domains of the Smart Grid Plane that covers the complete electrical energy conversion chains well as five layers, representing business objectives and processes, functions, information exchange and models, communication protocols and components. Also it consists of seven zones, representing the hierarchical levels of power system management. The zones reflect a hierarchical model which considers the concept of aggregation and functional separation in power system management.

Figure 2: Smart Grid plane - domains and hierarchical zones

Figure 3: NETfficient SGAM framework
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